ZadarZadne-Izdvojeno

Nikad viđene snimke savezničkog bombardiranja Zadra

zadar4Jutarnji list objavio je fotografije čuvane gotovo sedamdeset godina u američkim vojnim arhivima u Washingtonu. Neke su od njih objavljene u razdoblju od 1944. do 1948., u različitim američkim vojnim časopisima. No, većinu ovog materijala javnosti je predstavljena prvi put. Među njima su i fotografije bombardiranja Zadra.

Fotografije prati i sljedeći tekst:

Zadar je za njemačku vojsku bio izuzetno važan. Zadatak tamo raspoređenih snaga bio je spriječiti eventualno savezničko iskrcavanje te pružiti bočnu zaštitu njemačkim postrojbama koje se povlače iz Grčke i Albanije te onima na Balkanu. Osim toga 1943., nakon ulaska u grad, njemačka ratna mornarica premješta pomorsko zapovjedništvo iz Splita u Zadar. S obzirom na stratešku važnost grada njemačka vojska u Zadar ulazi i prije pada Italije. Već u kolovozu u Zadar je brodom stiglo 200 njemačkih vojnika. Stratešku važnost grada znaju i u savezničkom zapovjedništvu te kreću u žestoke zračne napade na grad. Prvi veći zračni napad izvršen je 2. studenoga 1943. godine, kada je među ostalim objektima razoren dom za nezbrinutu djecu.

U tom napadu poginule su 163 osobe, a 260 ih je ranjeno. Slijedili su veliki napadi 28. studenoga te 16. i 30. prosinca iste godine. Savezničke zračne snage u ovom bombardiranju nisu previše marile za civilno stanovništvo te su tzv. tepih-bombardiranjem uništavani cijeli stambeni blokovi. Najteže je stradalo središte grada, oko Foruma i Kalelarge. Posebno žestok napad dogodio se 16. prosinca 1943., kada je u napadu na grad sudjelovalo 50 američkih bombardera B-25 koji su bacili 90 tona bombi na sam centar grada. Pritom je poginulo oko 200 ljudi.

Zračni napadi trajali su nešto manje od godinu dana, a prema nekim procjenama na grad je u to vrijeme izbačeno oko 400 tona eksploziva. Sam grad i okolica u tom razdoblju napadnuti su 54 puta. Srušeno je oko 60 posto povijesne jezgre grada, a procjenjuje se da je u tim napadima poginulo od 500 do 1000 osoba. Za razliku od Splita i Dubrovnika, Zadar je pretrpio znatno veća razaranja. Prije svega zbog toga jer su se zadarska luka i sva pristaništa nalazila u najužem centru grada, a bili su glavna meta bombardiranja. To je za sobom povlačilo velika razaranja civilnih objekata. Split i Dubrovnik u tom su kontekstu bili u boljem položaju jer su njihove luke bile udaljene od gradskog središta.

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